Dr. Montessori’s study of the Fundamental Needs of Humans depicts how the most basic needs of humans were met in each major period of Western history. The HORIZONTAL STUDY of the Fundamental Needs of Humans focuses on HOW A PARTICULAR NEED WAS MET, such as shelter, in each of the six major periods of history. Students can easily observe the progression of human innovation throughout history. Dr. Montessori also developed an important variation on this material which she called the VERTICAL STUDY of the Fundamental Needs of Humans. In the Vertical Study, the focus of the exercises is on how the most basic needs were met in A PARTICULAR PERIOD OF HISTORY, such as in the Classical Age of Greece. Therefore, in the Vertical Study, the student observes the conditions of human life as experienced within each specific time frame. Prior to the development of this new Albanesi material, teachers who chose to present the Vertical Study of The Fundamental Needs of Humans had to sort, select, and remove Pictures & Story cards from each of the 11 basic sets of exercises and reorganize them in order to illustrate how the fundamental needs were met in each of the six time periods. The removal of cards made it difficult for other students to use the material for the Horizontal Study simultaneously. The efficiency and organization of the Montessori classroom is greatly enhanced when the new Vertical Study material is provided. This set for the Vertical study of the Fundamental Needs of Humans includes a total of six sets of exercises and six full-color Control Booklets: one exercise for each of the major periods of Western Civilization (Prehistory, Egyptian, Greek, Middle Ages, Renaissance, and Modern Time. Each individual set consists of eleven 5.5” x 5.5” color picture cards, eleven 5.5” x 5.5” story cards, and 11 labels for matching and matching Control Booklet. Each exercise is stored in colorful, custom-designed plastic pocket.